Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism & Presbyopia


Refractive errors refer to the inability of the eye to focus the light rays on the retina resulting in a blurred image.

The 4 types of refractive errors are:


Myopia is also known as short-sightedness. People with myopia see better at near, while distant objects are blurred. This is the commonest form of refractive error among Singaporeans and Asians.


Hyperopia is also known as long-sightedness. In people with hyperopia, distant objects are clearer while near objects appear blur. Hyperopia is often confused with presbyopia as people from all ages can develop hyperopia while presbyopia usually develops in those from 40 years old.


Astigmatism occurs when the curvature of one part of the cornea is different from another part of the cornea. This results in light rays being focused at various points in the eye, resulting in blurring and distortion of the image.


This is a condition where the eye loses the ability to accommodate and focus at near objects. This occurs as part of the normal ageing process which presents usually from 40 years ago.

Correction of Refractive Errors

The most common methods for correcting refractive errors include wearing spectacles and contact lenses. For those who wish to be free from spectacles and contact lenses, refractive surgery is a possible method.

Refractive Surgery

Refractive surgical procedures that can correct a person’s refractive error include LASIK surgery and Implantable Contact Lens surgery.