Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism & Presbyopia


Refractive errors occur when the eye is unable to focus light rays on the retina. This causes images to be blurry.

The 4 types of refractive errors are:


Myopia is also referred to as short-sightedness. It affects the ability to view far objects clearly. This is the most common type of refractive error in Singaporeans and Asians.


Hyperopia or long-sightedness is the condition where distant objects appear sharper while near objects appear blurry. Hyperopia is frequently confused with presbyopia which typically affects those beyond the age of 40; hyperopia can affect persons of all ages.


Astigmatism occurs when different areas of the cornea have different curvatures. As a result, light rays are focused on different places in the eye, causing images to look blurred or distorted.


This is a condition in which the eye loses its ability to focus on objects that are close by. This is a natural result of ageing, usually starting around the age of 40.

Refractive Error Correction

Wearing spectacles and contact lenses are the most common ways to correct refractive errors. Refractive surgery can be an option however, for those who want to be free of wearing spectacles and contact lenses.

Refractive Procedures

LASIK surgery and Implantable Contact Lens surgery are 2 refractive surgical treatments that can correct a person’s refractive errors.

Lang Eye Centre - Eye Surgeon in Singapore conducting LASIK Surgery on a patient